Language, Culture, Type

Indices : Books : Language, Culture, Type

Published in 2002 by Graphis.

Edited by John D. Berry.

Language Culture Type grew out of the first international type-design competition, the 2001 bukva:raz!, whose goal was to promote global cultural pluralism, interaction, and diversity in typographic communications. The book lavishly presents the winning entries, along with information about each typeface, its language, and its designer. A series of essays gives context for the interplay of types and languages in the world today — including the attempt to mesh all existing scripts into a single digital encoding system called Unicode.


Indices : Foundries : Underware

Underware is a (typo)graphic design-studio which is specialized in designing and producing typefaces. These are published for retail sale or are specially tailor-made. The company was founded in 1999 by Akiem Helmling, Bas Jacobs and Sami Kortemäki. Underware is based in the corresponding studios of each of its three principals in Den Haag, Helsinki and Amsterdam respectively.

Underware started TypeRadio and various type workshops. Underware designed the cover of font issue 004.

Underware fonts: Bello, Sauna, Auto, Dolly, Fakir and Unibody.



Tony de Marco

Born: Santos, Brazil, 1963

Tony de Marco is a type designer, photographer, and pornographer. Hard line, romantic, agitated, former shy (worst than former smokers), gambler, generous, egocentric, brass faced, caring, devil advocate. Editor of Tupigrafia magazine.

His font Samba, won the International Type Design Contest 2003 of Linotype.


Indices : Publications : Tupigrafia

Publishers: Claudio Rocha (BRA), Tony de Marco (BRA)
Editors: Claudio Rocha, Tony de Marco
Language: Brazilian Portuguese (English translation addendum)

A small format Brazilian typographic magazine packed full of great visual content.


How Magazine

Indices : Publications : How Magazine

Publisher: F&W Publications (USA)
Frequency: Bi-monthly

An American graphic design magazine that features practical information on technology, business tips, helpful resources and designer profiles. Each volume features a business annual, a self promotion competition and an interacive competition. Since 1991 How has also been responsible for holding the annual How Design Conference all over North America.

F&W Publications also publish Print Magazine and ID Magazine.

Print Magazine

Indices : Publications : Print Magazine

Publisher: F&W Publications (USA)
Frequency: Bi-monthly

An American design magazine targeted at all sorts of designers in a variety of different areas (Print, Interactive, Motion, Type). The magazine has been published since 1949. Each volume includes an American design annual and a European design annual. Additionally, most issues feature some sort of awards that graphic designers and students across the globe can submit their work too.

F&W Publications also publish How Magazine and ID Magazine.


Indices : Typefaces : Jubilee

Walter Tracy designed this delightful face at Linotype and Machinery in England during the 1950s. For some strange reason, Jubilee has never been digitized.

Linotype AG

Indicies : History : Linotype AG

In 1987, Mergenthaler-Linotype GmbH was acquired by the German Commerzbank. They floated the company onto the German stock market under the name "Linotype AG."

In 1990, Linotype AG merged with Dr.-Ing Rudolf Hell GmbH to become Linotype-Hell AG. They company was later bought by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG, who reorganized it as a subsidiary named Linotype Library (since 2005 simply "Linotype GmbH).

Today, Linotype GmbH is owned by Monotype Imaging.

Otmar Hoefer

Indices : Font Retailers : Otmar Hoefer

Otmar Hoefer is the Director of Font Marketing at Linotype Library.

In the late 1970s, while he was still a college student, Hoefer began working at D. Stempel AG as a printing technician. After Mergenthaler-Linotype GmbH acquired D. Stempel AG, Hoefer remained with the company, eventually ending up in the marketing department.

Hoefer is very active as a volunteer with the Klingspor Museum. Hoefer also raises donkeys and mules in his spare time.

Hoefer is the son of the famed calligrapher and type designer Karlgeorg Hoefer.

Josef Muller-Brockmann

Indices : Designers : Josef Müller-Brockmann

Josef Müller-Brockmann, was born in Rapperswil, Switzerland on May 9th 1914. By the early 1930's he became an apprentice as a graphic designer and later in 1936 opened his own Zürich based studio. Brockmann became interested in many forms of design such as poster design, corporate identity, and exhibit design, as well as some illustration (found mostly in his earlier works).

Over time Brockmann's style became very recognizable based on strict principals and beliefs which in time ended up becoming key aspects of what was dubbed the "Swiss Style", and later "The International Typographic Style". Moreover, a major component in this movement was a Swiss publication co-published by Brockmann called "Neue Graphik" (1959-1965).

Grid Systems In Graphic Design

Grid Systems in Graphic Design is a book by Swiss graphic designer, Joseph Müller-Brockmann that was originaly published by Verlag Niggli AG, Zürich, in 1961. The book is currently in its 4th edition, still being published by Niggli out of Switzerland. Since then it is continously refferenced when dealing with grids, and most contemporary books on the subject almost always come back to sourcing this masterpiece.

This book is an invaluable resource for any graphic designer, or exhibit designer for that matter (the book covers 3-dimensional spaces in addition to 2d) who wants to bring some structure and order to their work. This manual covers the typographic grid in many respects, from its basic functions, to working with different paper sizes, developing grid systems that are suitable for the content, keeping the grid consistant, and of course using it to intergrate type and image into it.


see one of the following:

Hoefler & Frere-Jones
Jonathan Hoefler

Linnea Lundquist

Indices : Designers : Linnea Lundquist

Founding partner of TypoBrand, Linnea is an expert in font production and worked for twelve years at Adobe. During that period she worked on Optima, Sabon, Adobe Caslon, Chaparral, Tekton, and others.

Linnea runs Atelier Gargoyle with partner Ward Dunham.

Bio at


Indices : Typobrand

Typobrand offers typographic services to help business build their brands through the use of type.

Founding partners include Mark Solsburg, Mark van Bronkhorst and Linnea Lundquist.


Indices : Foundries : Bitstream


Font retailer and rendering technology provider.

Officers:(as of July 2005)
Anna M. Chagnon: President and Chief Executive Officer
John Collins: Vice President and Chief Technology Officer
James P. Dore: Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Sampo Kaasila: Vice President of Research and Development
Costas Kitsos: Vice President of Engineering

Board of Directors (July 2005)
Charles Ying: Chairman
George B. Beitzel
Anna M. Chagnon
Amos Kaminski


Indices : Foundries : Adobe

Adobe Systems Incorporated (ADBE) makes software for the creative industry. Headquartered in San Jose, California, Adobe has offices around the globe.

See Also: Adobe Systems, Adobe Type


Indices : Organizations : ATypI (Association Typographique Internationale)

ATypI (Association Typographique Internationale) is the premier worldwide organisation dedicated to type and typography. Founded in 1957, ATypI provides the structure for communication, information and action amongst the international type community.


Jakob Erbar

Indices : Designers : Jakob Erbar

Type Designer, 1878-1935.

Jakob Erbar was trained as a type compositor in Düsseldorf and took courses in type and lettering with Fritz Helmut Ehmcke and Anna Simons. He worked as a job typesetter for the Dumont-Schauberg printing works in Cologne.

In 1908 he began teaching at the Städtische Berufsschule, and from 1919–35 taught at the Kölner Werkschule.

He is best known for the Erbar typeface, but designed severeal others. Erbar began working on a sans serif design in 1914, but was interrupted by the war. In 1919 Feder Schrift or Feder Grotesk, a stressed style sans serif, appeared.

Hoefler Type Foundry


Indices : Terminology : Hedera

Hedera n. Latin, meaning ivy. One of the earliest punctuation marks in Greek and Roman inscriptions and writing. Later it became a typographic ornament in book publishing.

Randy Jones

Indices : Designers : Randy Jones

Randy Jones is Bay Area based freelance graphic designer and principal of Aquatoad Design.

Typefaces by Randy Jones:

Olduvai: Olduvai is a rough, hand drawn font suitable for text. It's available through Veer. More on it's development here.

Drawing How-To

Indices : "How To" Section : Drawing Characters

Some Basics

Q: any suggestions of appropriate exercises, books, websites would be fantastic.
from this thread, a list of sites put together by Randy Jones:
Notes on Type, Handwriting and Lettering by Gunnlaugur SE Briem by Underware
Sketching Type from the LettError Wiki

Type Technologies

Indices : Type Technologies

Analog Technologies

Electronic Technologies

Digital Technologies

See also Type Technology

Vertical Metrics How-To

Indices : "How To" Section : Setting Cross-Platform Vertical Metrics

Originally written by John Hudson in a thread on Typophile:

[Note that the descender values in the hhea table and the OS/2 sTypoDescender field are properly expressed as negative integer (presuming the descender goes below the baseline), while the OS/2 usWinDescent value is expressed as a positive integer. For the purpose of the discussion below, all values are treated as if they were positive integers, since what matters is the sum of the values.]

The Discrepancy

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