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My apologies, in advance, for my lousy english.
I'm doing a school project on the factors that influence the choice of a typeface. Robert Bringhurst, in his book The Elements of Typographic Style, refers to:
Technical considerations, Consider the medium for which the typeface was originally designed;
Practical typography, Choose faces that suit the task as well as the subject;
Historical considerations, Choose a face whose historical echoes and associations are in harmony with the text;
Cultural & Personal considerations; Choose faces whose individual spirit and character is in keeping with the text.
Michael Bierut, in his famous essay 'thirteen ways of looking at a typeface', considers more subjective reasons like 'because it's beautiful', 'because it's ugly', 'because it's boring', etc.
Some designers, truly have a fascination with only one typeface and throughout their work they only use a very small selection of typefaces.
I could enumerate many more reasons or examples but I don't want to limit or condition your answers. What do you considerer when choosing a typeface?