20th century Garamonds

Antonio Cavedoni's picture

Hi everybody,

I’m looking for specimens of 20th century (or mid / late 19th century at most) “Garamonds”, that is, both typefaces inspired from Claude Garamond’s work & typefaces inspired from Jean Jannon’s work. I’m especially interested in the latter ones as my research is mainly around Simoncini Garamond which we know to be of the second genre. Because of that, any current digital Garamonds (Adobe) or Jannons (Štorm) don’t qualify. The various Berthold and ITC Garamonds also don’t qualify. Here is a quick list of the ones I know exist:

  • “Garamonds”
    • Stempel Garamond
    • Sabon
  • “Jannons”
    • ATF Garamond
    • Monotype Garamond

Then there are Ludlow Garamond and Garaldus by Nebiolo, which I think are more their own thing than either “Jannons” or “Garamonds”. James Mosley mentioned a Garamond drawn by Frederic Goudy for US Monotype but I’ve never seen it.

Any other foundry / hotmetal / early photocomposition Garamonds I should be aware of?

As I mentioned above, scans of specimens would be most appreciated. If you happen to have any, please get in touch with me and we can arrange resolution / delivery.

Thank you very much!

Reed Reibstein's picture

I don't have any specimens to pass along, I'm afraid, but Goudy's Garamond is available as LTC Garamont.

eliason's picture

Does Linotype Granjon count?

Antonio Cavedoni's picture

Reed: thanks for that. Does anybody have a specimen of the original Goudy Garamond / Garamont?

Craig: after reading the little historical note about it on the Linotype Web site, sure, it does qualify. Thank you!

James Mosley's picture

Hello Antonio. Here some images that you have seen before, from a Lanston Monotype specimen book. I think Goudy catches the quirky qualities of the Jannon type better than anyone, and I find those roman figures fascinating.

folengo's picture

Hi Antonio,
a few months ago I picked up from a flea market a German book from 1943 set in Garamond Antiqua, does this interest you? I have some hi-res scans or, if you want, I could lend you the book.

Antonio Cavedoni's picture

James: that’s great, I’ll email you for higher-resolution scans if you have them.

Paolo: that looks like metal Stempel Garamond (also, the spacing is kind of funny, look at “Waterrache” or “Umformer”. I’ll email you as well.

Anyone else?

kentlew's picture

Antonio — Do you have a copy of the Fleuron V with the Beatrice Warde (Paul Beaujon) article? The final section of her article discusses and shows a number of early 20th century “Garamond”s. And there’s a sample of a wonderfully obscure copy cast by M. Ollière, Paris. I might have a scan around here somewhere.

Antonio Cavedoni's picture

Kent: I bought the Fleuron Anthology a couple of days ago – it’s supposed to have that article amongst others. I’m waiting for it to show up in the mail. If you have already scanned it and would send the file to me, that would be most helpful as well, otherwise I’ll just wait for my copy.

kentlew's picture

Antonio — 

I don’t know the Anthology. If it reproduces the article in toto, then you should be fine.

In addition to a bunch of historical material, she shows a specimen of the caractères de l’Université composed at the Imprimerie Nationale (which attributes Garamond).

Then there are showings of a raft of 20th-century versions: the ATF Garamond, the American Monotype Garamont (Goudy’s), the English Monotype Garamond — all after the IN face (thus, derived from Jannon).

Then there are three other 20th-century faces, perhaps more authentically Garamond-inspired: British Linotype’s Granjon (George Jones), the Stempel Garamond, and an obscure cutting by the equally obscure French founder, M. Ollière of Paris.

All but the last are pretty familiar to typophiles. Here is an image of the M. Ollière ‘Garamont’:


It’s not obvious in this resolution, but there’s something I find charming about the relative coarseness of this interpretation.

If your anthology doesn’t happen to include all the illustrations, let me know offline and I can send a high-res scan.

Maxim Zhukov's picture

Hey, what about Le Garamont of Deberni & Peignot (1914–23)?

Antonio Cavedoni's picture

Good call Maxim! Although I can’t see the attached image for some reason.

JanekZ's picture

"I can’t see the attached image for some reason."
Odious hyphen in the filename.

Maxim Zhukov's picture

W. Pincus Jaspert, W. Turner Berry, A.F. Johnson. The Encyclopaedia of Type Faces, 4th Ed. London: Blandford, 1991, p. 100.

dan_reynolds's picture

Antonio! The Garamond-Antiqua in the sample above seems to have no kerning in it (in the word Tyfingschwert, there is no kerning of the y under the T. Also, the f is a narrow f. The font should have had an fi ligature in it, but it does not appear in this word! Also, the ch is a ch ligature. How odd then that that is used, but not the fi. You can see the narrow f again in aufgenommen and Umformer). I suspect – without having gone into the specimen books – that this is the Linotype version of Stempel's Garamond. I suspect that the hand-set Stempel Garamond would have looked better.

And the Fleuron Anthology does include Warde's Garamond article!

dan_reynolds's picture

There was also a metal and photocomposition Garamond designed in East Germany by Herbert Thannhaeuser, for VEB Typoart: Typoart Garamond (or, at the time, it was probably just called Garamond or Garamond-Antiqua. It was designed in 1955, for metal type-setting (just col metal, I think. I think that it was adapted for film in the 1980s. Elsner & Flake have digital versions of it.

Abert Kapr designed a Cyrillic companion for it, I suspect for metal hand-setting, (perhaps) in the 1970s.

It looks sort of Jannon-y to me. If you like Jannon, you'll love the cap italic Q! The lowercase a is totally whack, though.

Maxim Zhukov's picture

Dan, it was the other way round. Tannenhaeuser’s Latin-only Garamond-Antiqua (1955–6) was a Handsatz und Magazin-Matrizen-Schnitt (geschnitten in 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 24, 28, 36 und 48 p.), and Albert Kapr designed its Cyrillic version around 1982. The latter was developed for [Linotype?] photocomposition. I consulted its design… Not that I am particularly proud of what came out of it.

It is now shown on URW++, Elsner+Flake, and Ascender Web sites, under various names (e.g., Garamond Nº4 Cyrillic, Garamond Nº 5 EF, Typoart Garamond TB, Typoart Garamond TH…). The Garamond Nº 4 Cyrillic is credited, rightly or wrongly, to ‘Ivana Koudelkova, (URW Studio)’, but dated 1983 [?!].

dan_reynolds's picture

Abert Kapr's »Gedanken zur Garamond Russisch« was originally published in Aus einem Brief an den schriftherstellenden Betrieb Typoart vom 9.9.1976. I have the article in reprint, in the book Albert Kapr, Schrift und Buchkunst: Aufsätze, Reden und künstlerische Arbeiten. Leipzig: VEB Fachbuch Verlag (1982). Pages 206–211.

He writes there that Typoart received an order in Sept. 1975 for a Garamond Russian, from the Soviet photosetter 2 NFA. The design sample shown as part of the article in the book (just the Upright and Cursive faces) is dated 1978/1979. Which is funny, if the book is supposed to reprint an article from 1976! I guess these two illustration were not part of the original article.

Maxim, do you remember if this means that the typeface was not released until 1982[?], but designed several years earlier?

Antonio Cavedoni's picture

Dan, Maxim: this Typoart Garamond is very interesting and because it’s German it has a lot of relevance to my research (Simoncini Garamond was supposedly a joint design effort between Simoncini and Luwdig & Mayer). Does anyone have a specimen of the original metal version?

Also: I’m torn wether I should include Vendôme in this list or not.

dan_reynolds's picture

Haha… at the end of the article (page 211 of the book mentioned above), Kapr writes (my translation…):
"From the first sample prints, I would like to request that examples to be sent to Wadim Lazurski and Maxim Shukow, respectively. Both will evaluate the samples – in writing – and will suggest corrections, as well as give their assessments, which will be very useful for the dissemination of the new typeface in the Soviet Union."

Original German text…
Von den ersten Probe-Abzüge bitte ich jeweils ein Exemplar an Wadim Lazurski und Maxim Shukow zu schicken. Beide werden die Probe-Abzüge schriftlich beurteilen und Korrekturen vorschlagen bzw. eine Einschätzung geben, die für die Verbreitung der neuen Schrift in der SU sehr nützlich sein könnte.

I guess you got your copy in the mail, right?

Maxim Zhukov's picture
  • Maxim, do you remember if this means that the typeface was not released until 1982 [?], but designed several years earlier?

Dan, you are right. I remember that article. Yes, it might have been in the works for a long time… Vladimir Yefimov, a good friend of mine, wrote:

‘[Around 1978] we went to Dresden for the acceptance of the Cyrillic versions of their [Typoart’s. mZh] typefaces for photocomposition that were being developed based on the intergovernmental agreement between USSR and GDR. According to the agreement, the USSR (the Poligraphmash plant, based in Leningrad) was to design the photocomposition equipment belonging to the Soviet Kaskad line of typesetters; the font development was supposed to be a joint venture of ONSh [Vladimir’s shop. mZh] and Typoart, and the fonts be used by both parties, in parallel. We were going to create the Soviet versions of Times and Bodoni, both not to be mentioned by night, and the German comrades the Cyrillic extensions to some of their typefaces. Interestingly enough, we were told right off the bat that they would not use our phototypesetting hardware because they have a contract with Linotype, and they already used Western equipment fitted with the fonts (Schriftträgern) they make themselves. As to our coöperation, well, they would design those Cyrillics for us, in the fulfilment of that intergovernmental agreement, period. […] We then discussed two of the latest in a series of Typoart’s Cyrillics. One of them was Magna, and I don’t quite recall what was the other one. But for sure, it was neither Garamond, nor Timeless or Maxima. Was it Primus? I don’t think its Cyrillic version was ever completed.’

dan_reynolds's picture

Fantastic! This is outside of the scope of Antonio's question now. But the 1989 Fotosatzschriften book from Kapr/Schäfer (produced, or at least set, at Typoart) shows the following four typefaces as having Cyrillic coverage: Garamond, Timeless, Magna, and Maxima [their order].

Maxim Zhukov's picture

The last design Kapr started developing a Cyrillic for—and never finished—was Prillwitz-Antiqua (1987). Its first sketches looked like a total disaster…

dan_reynolds's picture

Thanks Maxim, this talk has been tremendous fun!

Maxim Zhukov's picture

Thanks for remembering Kapr. He was quite a guy.

Robert Trogman's picture

I like ATF Garamond #3 and Amsterdam Garamond as well as Berthold Garamond

Stefan Seifert's picture

Me, too, Robert! No3 and Amsterdam!

toad42's picture

In 2005 I did some research into the origin of Garamond No. 4, URW++'s version of Typoart Garamond. Over the next few posts, I'll share some of my research and correspondence. I never did finish my research, but what I learned may be interesting. Maybe someone else will pick up the threads and finish working out the whole story.

toad42's picture

On 29 December 2005 I contacted URW++ about among other things the origins of Garamond No. 4. The next day, Peter Rosenfeld of URW++ wrote me back. Here's what he had to say about it:

Garamond No. 4 or Typoart Garamond
In order to be able to explain the circumstances how Typoart's Garamond got into our hands, I have to go back two decades in time.

Before Germany's reunification, Typoart used to be the font foundry for Eastern Germany and Eastern Europe. Upon the introduction of digital type in outline format by URW (Peter Karow, a co-founder of the former URW company is the inventor and pioneer of digital outline fonts), Typoart contacted URW about our IKARUS software system, at that time the de-facto standard for all font manufacturers all over the world.

URW licensed IKARUS to Typoart, and also provided the training for Typoart's font designers in Dresden.

Some years later, round about the mid-eighties, Typoart offered digital versions for some of their fonts to URW, to be marketed by URW in the Western world. Font business was good at that time, and actually, I was in charge of the URW font department during the eighties and early nighties, so we accepted Typoart's offer and purchased some font data including their version of Garamond.

Garamond, obviously, is one of the most beautiful classical typefaces, and we wanted to make available literally all existing versions (like Stempel's beautiful version with "roughed contours", Linotype's, Berthold's cleaned up version, Lettergieterij's elegant version, Letraset's display version etc).

That's the story about how we got hold of Typoart's very beautiful Garamond version.

I know a few former Eastern Germany font designers like Erhard Kaiser and Ralph M. Unger, and I will contact them about any design details historically relevant, both for the Latin and the Cyrillic version of Kapr. Erhard Kaiser, a German Leipzig font designer (Fleischmann, Prokyon), worked for Typoart and was personally acquainted to famous Mr. Kapr.

eliason's picture

There's some info about Typoart here, too.

toad42's picture

Also on the 29th I found a paper that Joyce Yee and Grant Carruthers wrote, "Beyond the Wall: Typography from the German Democratic Republic," for the 2004 Friends of St. Bride Conference. Here is an excerpt from that paper dealing with Typoart, which mentions its Garamond:

A Short History of GDR Typography

Following WW2, type foundries in the Eastern (Soviet) Zone of Occupation, like all other major private enterprises, were taken over by the authorities and nationalised. In 1951 the East German government consolidated the long established foundries of Schelter & Giesecke AG Leipzig, Schriftguß AG Dresden, and Ludwig Wagner AG into one main state-run type foundry: VEB Typoart Dresden1. This foundry was to continue producing fonts until the end of the GDR in 1990, whereupon it became Typoart GmbH. It still operates today in the printing industry but no longer produces typefaces. Many of the influential names in GDR typography worked there.

Leipzig and Dresden have a long tradition of fine printing and book arts which stretches back almost five hundred years. This tradition continued during the GDR, where the designers and typographers of what became known as the “Leipzig-Dresden School” worked to sustain the main printing and publication centres for the GDR. Leipzig in particular hosted many book design festivals (and still continues to do so today) such as “The Most Beautiful Books in the Whole World” and the “International Book Exhibition”, both of which showcased the best of Eastern European and international work.

VEB Typoart Dresden was led from 1951 by the typographer Herbert Thannhaueser until his death in 1963. Thannhaueser (an art director in the former Schelter & Giesecke foundry) oversaw the company in its formative years, when raw materials were scarce; many fonts from the former foundries were used and many display faces were developed, along with new versions of typefaces designed for Linotype and Monotype compatible typesetting machines. Later, Typoart focussed more on book faces and helped to develop many Cyrillic versions of faces for Eastern bloc countries.

Thannhaueser’s own typographical contributions include versions of Garamond (1955) and Didot (1958), along with his own typefaces Erler Versalien (1953), Liberta (1956-1960) and Magna (1968). Typoart Garamond is currently still available as EF Garamond No. 5 from the Elsner and Flake foundry.

The typographer, calligrapher, teacher and book designer Albert Kapr took over at Typoart in 1964. Kapr (1918 - 1995) was a devout Communist who believed in the need for fine typography and book printing in the GDR. He wrote many books on typographic and printing history, and was particularly keen on the history and preservation of the German blackletter form2.

Kapr was the founding father of the Hochschule für Grafik & Buchkunst (HGB) in Leipzig, which proved to be very influential in the development of graphic design and typography in the GDR. Many of Germany’s contemporary typographers and designers are alumni from the school.

Kapr developed Cyrillic versions of Thannhaueser’s Garamond in the early 1980’s and also designed Faust (1959), Leipziger-Antiqua (1970), Prillwitz-Antiqua (1971), and Magna Kyrillisch (1975).

toad42's picture

I wrote to Joyce Yee on the 29th to see if she or Grant had learned anything further about Typoart or its Garamond. On 3 January 2006 she wrote me back. Here's the relevant part of her response:

Our knowledge of Thannhauser's Garamond is limited and like you, found very little written about Typoart. We did meet someone at the conference who has original sample type specimens from Typoart - and he kindly let us have a look at it. However, I don't remember if he had the Garamond sample in his collection. You could try to contact him to find out, though I'm not sure if he knows any of the background information that you are enquiring about. His name is Jan Middendorp.

Grant and I have not pursued this subject any further, though Grant did write an article about East German design for Eye Magazine (http://www.eyemagazine.com/feature.php?id=123&fid=536). Though, its focus is on the design rather than typography.

toad42's picture

Eliason, Thanks for the link. For everyone else, here's the paragraph from that article that references the Typoart Garamond:

At Typoart, the principle ‘frugality and effectiveness’ lead us to work with representatives from the printing enterprises to develop a type program that met all the important requirements: a Renaissance roman for literature, like Garamond, a classical, like Bodoni or Didot, then a slab-serif, for example Clarendon. There had to be something from each major style. Naturally also sans-serif, in different styles, like Helvetica and Futura. The “Zentrag” would even request imitations of specific western-made typefaces they couldn’t afford to license.

toad42's picture

Here is a sample of URW Garamond No. 4 Cyrillic TCY Light:

toad42's picture

Here is a sample of URW Garamond No. 4 Cyrillic TCY Light Italic:

toad42's picture

And lastly, here's a sample of URW Garamond No. 4 Cyrillic TCY Medium:

Maxim Zhukov's picture

Thank you for the excellent story, Rick. I am still mystified as to the URW’s crediting the design of its Garamond Nº 4 to Ivana Koudelkova…

Maxim Zhukov's picture

I’ve just found a terrible-quality image of an early (1975?) version of Typoart Garamond Cyrillic, with the isosceles, delta- and lambda-like, capital Д (De) and Л (El) in roman, and a kinky capital К (Ka) in both roman and italic.

hhajdu's picture

I´m also a little curious about this topic.
These two scans are showing the Typoart Garamond italic for manual typesetting. (The versions for linotype and monotype hot metal machine composition are slightly different)
The bigger scan is 28p - the smaller one is 14p. There are also some subtile differences - look for instance at the "a" "h" and the old style figures.

But somehow the wider "h" seems not just a thing of the bigger cuts... on this page http://www.blog.druckerey.de/index.php?id=80 (german) you will see some self explaining pictures made by the german printer Martin Z. Schröder. Two different width of the "h" in 10p, which you can´t find in the Garamond specimen - confusing.
By the way - does somebody know, why there are no oldstyle figures in the digital versions of the Typoart Garamond? I ask myself, because in the east german Typoart "Digiset" specimen these figures were existing.

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