Hebrew Type Designs

gohebrew's picture

Here are Hebrew Type Design specimens from Mr. Raphael Frank's important little book on Hebrew type designs and its history, printed originally in German, and translated later into Hebrew. An English translation doesn't yet exist. His ideas and opinions are quoted in my English language book on Hebrew Typography.

Frank's contribution to Hebrew type design was significant and influenced Jewish culture due to its enormous impact upon modern Jewish and Israeli societies. These samples include rarely used examples of different type style designs, demonstrating his intense love and knowledge of Hebrew type design.

Frank designed and created the popular standard FrankReuhl type style. No other type design has been used to a greater extent for the Hebrew language in the twentieth century and beyond. In the eighteenth and nineteeth centuries, the Merubaas typeface, and its derivatives, were the book publishing stand typeface. Since then, it was replaced by FrankReuhl. Over the past fifty years, Hadasa, David, and Narkiss, have attempted to upsupt FrankReuhl's dominance and have failed.

gohebrew's picture


What do you know about the difference between the upper and lower ta'amim? Why are some above, and some below?

I checked in the Shay Lemorah Tanach to see if any shvanas bump into upper ta'amim. A shvana never appeared when there was an upper taan. That means, the ta'amim are related to the rules of Hebrew grammar.

I don't see yet how, but there must be a relationship between the taamim, the nikkud, Hebrew grammar, and maybe even the taggim in the Sefer Torah scroll.

Now, if Hebrew words are spelled according to roots, and modifiers, based upon Hebrew grammar rules. So, if Hebrew grannar is related to nikkud and to ta'amim, then they are related to the letters.

Did you find any book discussing this?

david h's picture


Try first a college library around you; becasue several of them are out of print, hard to find (and if you're going to find....you need to payyyyy).

Most important: all of them in Hebrew (no nikud);

I don't know if this is good idea to have all of them now -- since too much and you won't get anything. But first read any grammar book to see what I'm talking about.

david h's picture

> how then is a secondary stress indicated?

The meteg serves to indicate a certain "stop" -- you don't chant the meteg -- for phonetic & musical reasons.

gohebrew's picture


Good suggestion. JTS (Conservative central yeshiva) library in upper Manhattan has everything.

Do you know how JTS? Before there was such a thing as Conservative (such a inappropriate name), there were only Orthodox and Reform rabbis. A convention of them was held in Philly. Some Reform rabbis thought it would be amusing to have non-kosher food, like pork, served at the main dinner. The Orthodox rabbis were outraged and stormed out. Maybe that really the intention.

In protest, they fonded JTS as a showcase central yeshiva with a tremendous library of every rare title you can imagine. The Reform in response founded Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati with its even greater library.

The Schneersohn/Lubavitch collection is as sizey. None of them are lending libraries. They do allow copies to be made.

gohebrew's picture


A meteg is not chanted, but indicates a stressed syllable. In Biblical text, is the meteg indicating this? How does the reader know its a meteg or a silug, if they occurs at the end of a verse? All they both repeated?


Does SBL-Hebrew have a double meteg by itself, a double meteg with each nikkud, a double meteg with each taam, anda double meteg with each nikkud and combination?

Must I have millions of ligatures (exaggeration), or is there an easier way in MS VOLT?

Hey, the neteg/silug combo only happens in a few words, right. Why not make just a ligature for that situation?

david h's picture

> A shvana never appeared when there was an upper taan


Again? would you mind to post an image -- Shay Lemorah Tanach, Leviticus 14: 8-12

david h's picture


> How does the reader know its a meteg or a silug,

I'm not sure if the reader knows 'silug'; John said that -- siluq = at the end of the verse

> In Biblical text, is the meteg indicating this.

I guess this is a question, right?

gohebrew's picture


> Shay Lemorah Tanach, Leviticus 14: 8-12

...over easy...

(It'll take a coupla days, as they're my son's books. I'll call him, ask permission to borrow it, and when I do, I will look at it before I scan, because you made me curious.)

> I guess this is a question, right?

Is this an answer or a statement? :)

gohebrew's picture

In Biblical text, is the meteg indicating this?

? ? ?

david h's picture

> In Biblical text, is the meteg indicating this?

Yes, of course, Biblical text.

And post an image:

> This booklet is special because it features a graphic symbol for a shvana.

> the shvana always appeared over the shva after the first letter of a Hebrew word, if that letter is a shooruk, a vov with a dot on it middle left side.

gohebrew's picture


> the shvana always appeared over the shva after the first letter of a Hebrew word, if that letter is a shooruk, a vov with a dot on it middle left side.

This is accurate if the word is a verb, but when it wasn't a verb, then it was an ordinary shva. So the definition needs an exception.

That can't be easily programmed in OpenType unless CSUB supports wildcard strings, since there are certain letters in certain places for verbs, and other places for nouns. Hence, if OT CSUB supports wildcard strings, it can be defined.

John,is that possible?

I am convinced it's doable, but my research learning curve is like a big mountain to climb.

The Lubavitcher Rebbe explains the statement in Avot, yagata umatzata, not as a halevai statement, but as a promise. He points out the lashon matzata is beyond relationship to the yegia. Plus the Rebbe Reshab says in Ayin Beis by the concept of hashaara (conceiving in your whether or not it possible) that everything is then possible if one conceives it. A profound concept. I bet Obama wished thay he believe he could be president.

gohebrew's picture


> Yes, of course, Biblical text.

But is "it" referring to the kind of meteg which indicates stress, or the kind John referred to. Huh?

gohebrew's picture

> Right now there’s not a single revival that is close to the original.

I created one very good revival, very close to the original, in 1986, based on excellent foot high drawings of various letter forms, including Frank's. Plus I created another PostScript font for Empire Press also based upon very large drawings.

> Don’t forget that Raphael Frank was Sofer Stam.

At Bitstream's www.myfonts.com, Frank is a rabbinical scholar. Chajmke writes that he was a chazan. Did he even wear a kippah? Maybe he was a Sofer Stam that wrote mezuzahs in FrankReuhl.

gohebrew's picture

David suggested that Miriam was also created by Frank. Kehot's hundreds if scholarly books suggest this, as FrankReuhl and Miriam are teamed up together, with FrankReuhl in the lead as a text face, and Miriam as an "italic".

I created this rendition of Miriam with a bold weughtm and a sans set also.

William Berkson's picture

While you are listing sources on the grammar of the te'amim and nikud, I see that the Encyclopedia Judaica has a long article, amounting to a small book, on this, under the heading 'Masorah'. It looks very exhaustive--and to me exhausting! It has a huge Bibliography. (It is in vol. 16, the final one, out of order.)

There they talk about the Ga'yah, which seems to later be called the meteg. Apparently it was initially created in order to distinguish the schva nach and schva na! And then it came to be used in all kinds of capricious ways, which scholars tried to sort out and systematize.

Israel, according to Michael Meyer's history "Response to Modernity", the infamous "trefa banquet", with shellfish (not pork) was ordered by by laymen from a Jewish caterer--who obviously didn't know or didn't care about kashrut. It was not a deliberate provocation by some rabbis, but rather a huge embarrassment. Some Reform minded Rabbis indeed didn't care about kashrut, but they wouldn't have deliberately offended their colleagues. Still the laxness did reveal dramatically the underlying differences of attitude.

The occasion was the first ordination of Rabbis from the Hebrew Union College, in 1883. At that time there were no separate Jewish denominations in the US, and indeed this did spark the actual split between Reform and Conservative, though the tensions were obviously already there.

Chajmke's picture

@GoHebrew: I learned that Rafael Frank also published a siddur (I would consider myself as a collector of siddurim), together with a person called "Israel Wiesen", but I wasn't able to find a print of it...


gohebrew's picture


> According to Michael Meyer’s history “Response to Modernity”, the infamous “trefa banquet”, with shellfish (not pork)

I heard it from someone who read it in a book. Sorry. I like your version better.

> the actual split between Reform and Conservative,

You mean Reform and Orthodox. It created JTS, too. Si, HUC is older. Why is it in Cinci.?

gohebrew's picture


> Rafael Frank also published a siddur (I would consider myself as a collector of siddurim)

What was his role? Typesetter, editor?

What kind of type styles appear in your siddurim? Do you have any hand-drawn siddurim too?

gohebrew's picture


> There they talk about the Ga’yah, which seems to later be called the meteg. Apparently it was initially created in order to distinguish the schva nach and schva na! And then it came to be used in all kinds of capricious ways, which scholars tried to sort out and systematize.

Is there a resource for this account of this chronology? Are there any visual examples?

Michel Boyer's picture

> Frank also may have designed Miriam

That is what I understand is explicitly stated in this (Hebrew) Wiki link about Frank.

david h's picture


> This is accurate if the word is a verb, but when it wasn’t a verb, then it was an ordinary shva. So the definition needs an exception.

An image. or two. There's no such a thing — if it's a verb - yes; not a verb -- ordinary shva.

> But is “it” referring to the kind of meteg which indicates stress....

There are ten different kinds of metegs:
1. Heavy meteg: 2 kinds of heavy -- regular + not regular
2. light meteg
3. meteg on guttural
4. meteg on middle guttural
5. meteg on sheva
6. vayehi meteg
7. meteg + letter he
8. meteg on closed syllable + long vowel
9. meteg on open syllable + long vowel
10. meteg + similar letters

There's a rare meteg (Poetical Books) that we don't know why that meteg is there.

As a visual graphic (only Breuer and his school): there's the "long meteg" — a long vertical line; " short meteg — the usual short vertical line.

In general, as a type designer you don't need/have to know the whole big family so called meteg. But if you want to deal with grammar you have to.

To add to your "research learning curve is like a big mountain to climb": you want to have a special mark e.g. floating asterisk above the sheva na, right? But EVERY hataf is sheva na: hataf segol, hataf patah, hataf qamats.

William Berkson's picture

>Is there a resource for this account

As I said, it's all in a very long Encyclopedia Judaica article, with extensive bibliography.

The author is identified as Aron Dotan, who was at the time of publication (1972) a professor of Hebrew Philology at Tel Aviv University.

I'm afraid that if you want to study Hebrew grammar, you are not going to find sources that are kosher by your standards. The study of Hebrew grammar was developed largely by maskilim--Enlightenment Jews who rejected the Kabbala as nonsense.

On the chronology of the split, I'd have to check. Hebrew Union College was set up as a seminary for all rabbis, with the goal of keeping the Jewish community unified--hence the name. Of course, that didn't happen. I think the formal separation into three branches--orthodox, conservative, reform--happened only after the trefa banquet. You have to remember that at the time there were relatively few Jews of any kind in the US.

About Cincinnati, IIRC, at the time it had the same Jewish population as New York City, and was a center of Reform Jews transplanted from Germany. The big influx of European Jews to the US only happened after 1880.

david h's picture

> The author is identified as Aron Dotan


If it is Prof. Dotan — it is not just OK, but super-super-super OK!!!

Michel Boyer's picture

> Frank also may have designed Miriam

References in the Wiki entry are unfortunately missing.

Here is what I found in Sivan Toledo's Anotated Bibliography of Hebrew Typesetting. First three references with their number in his list:

[1] Leila Avrin. The art of the Hebrew book in the twentieth century. In [49], pages 125-139.
[15] Ittai Joseph Tamari. Hebraische Schriftgestaltung in Deutschland von der Jahrhundertwende bis zum Ausbruch des zweiten Weltkriegesunter besonderer Berucksichtigung der "Frank-Rühl" Lettern. In German. Ph.D. thesis, Johannes Gutenberg Universitat, Mainz, 1993. Published on microfiche, Hansel-Hohenhausen, 1996.
[49] Leonard Singer Gold, editor. A Sign and a witness: 2,000 years of Hebrew books and illuminated manuscripts. New York Public Library and Oxford University Press, 1988.

About [1] Toledo writes: Avrin conjectures that MIRYAM was designed by Rafael Frank (the conjecture is proved as correct in [15]).


PS I don't know if I should add that about [15] he writes: I cannot comment about the content since I do not read German. Of course this is an annotated bibliography and normally each entry is followed by a comment...

gohebrew's picture


> To add to your “research learning curve is like a big mountain to climb”: you want to have a special mark e.g. floating asterisk above the sheva na, right? But EVERY hataf is sheva na: hataf segol, hataf patah, hataf qamats.

I am a very pragmatic businessperson in matters of type design. A graphic symbol over a letter with a shva to indicate to the reader is an accepted practice by two of the largest Jewish publishers in the world. So I want my fonts to support it.

A graphic symbol over a letter with a hataf katan, hataf patach, and hataf segol, is not an accepted practice by any Jewish publishers. So I could care less, of the hataf part is a shvana or just a couple of dots...

This is primarily a business decision.

I am a professional with very high standards, so I want to become an expert in Hebrew grammar. I am also a thinker of lofty concepts, so I seek to understand how letters, nikkud, taamim, taggim, music are interrelated.

About William's warning about the maskilim who excelled in Hebrew grammar, my role model is the seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe. When he was a young boy, his parents hired secular tutors to teach him mathematics, Hebrew grammar, and other topics not studied in yeshiva. I am interested though in reviewing these same rules in the writings of the Rishonim (the early redactors of Jewish law), as I understand that all rules are derived from their writings.


Thank you for posting those links. Can we find Friendlaender's articles online?

Michel Boyer's picture

> Can we find Friendlaender’s articles online?

I don't know. I could not.

gohebrew's picture


Where are they available to see a hard copy?

John Hudson's picture

David: If it is Prof. Dotan — it is not just OK, but super-super-super OK!!

Yes! Professor Dotan is a great expert. His edition of the Biblia Hebraica Leningradensis is superb.

John Hudson's picture


A meteg is not chanted, but indicates a stressed syllable. In Biblical text, is the meteg indicating this?

It is chanted and it is indicating (secondary) stress. Stress is part of chant.

What I am not sure about is how this chant stress -- and hence this use of meteg -- relates to stress in spoken Hebrew.

How does the reader know its a meteg or a silug, if they occurs at the end of a verse? All they both repeated?

Does SBL-Hebrew have a double meteg by itself, a double meteg with each nikkud, a double meteg with each taam, anda double meteg with each nikkud and combination?

There is no situation in the Bible text where meteg and siluq fall on the same syllable. There are cases where they fall on the same word, but always on separate syllables. So there is no need for a 'double meteg' combination.

Think of is this way:

The cantor is studying the vocalised and accented text (obviously he needs to do this prior to the service, because the synagogue scrolls do not contain the nikudot or ta'amim; he has to practice ahead of time and do it from memory). He sees this little vertical mark which he knows has particular musical significance. In the midst of a verse it indicates secondary stress, which he will sing slightly louder and longer than a syllable that has no accent. At the end of a verse it indicates a final cadence, typically of two or three notes depending on the word. [Note also that the cadence for siluq varies when the verse is the final one in the reading.]

So the terms meteg and siluq do not refer to distinct marks, per se, but to different interpretations of the same mark in different contexts.

John Hudson's picture

Some additional observations from Jacobson's _Chanting the Hebrew Bible_ (p.430)

• The symbols for meteg and siluk look identical.

• Siluk marks the last word in a verse. In most books it is followed by the sof-pasuk sign.

• Siluk is placed under the first letter of the stressed syllable.

• Meteg is a secondary accent: it will never appear alone on a word without that word's primary accent. The primary accent is placed on the stressed syllable. Meteg indicates a secondary word stress, usually two syllables before the primary stress.

Jacobson provides examples of both meteg and siluq.

From these rules it follows that:

if you see a word with only the meteg/siluq mark, and no other ta'am, then it must be siluq;

if you see a word with the meteg/siluq mark on one syllable but another accent on a later syllable, then it must be meteg;

siluq is the sign used as a primary accent;

ergo, if a word has two occurences of the sign then the first must be meteg and the second must be siluq.

William Berkson's picture

I'm sure the more expert you are on the subject, the more you will enjoy the EJ article. It is sufficiently specialized and advanced that I can't read it, except in very small doses.

Michel Boyer's picture

> Where are they available to see a hard copy?

Such articles are generally to be found in university libraries. For instance, in Montreal, and if I understand well their online catalogue, McGill University seems to have the Printing & Graphic Arts article (Toward a Modern Hebrew) as well as the Typographica article (Modern and Hebrew typefaces). Both are in the rare book division; I never managed to get there.

John Hudson's picture

Further research on meteg confirms that its origin is as part of the full accentuation (cantillation) of the Hebrew Bible, and its primary role must be understood as part of that overall system. However, it is unique among the accents in that it is also sometimes encountered in otherwise unaccented text, i.e. alongside the nikudot vocalisation.

I'm only familiar with the Biblical text, so I don't know how meteg is used independently of the full cantillation system, and have not been able to locate reliable information on this (other than anecdotal comments that it represents 'stress', which doesn't really convey much: what kind of stress? in what circumstances?). What I am fairly sure of though is that this use is a later development and, presumably, derivative of the role of meteg in the cantillation system (as described above).

Here, for reference, is Gesenius' explication of the meteg accent (2nd English edition, based on 28th German edition, Oxford 1910). German readers may wish to seek out Baer's 'exhaustive account' cited in the footnote on page 64.

John Hudson's picture

Israel: Stam is as acronym foe three kinds of holy objects, the S-efer Torah parchment, Tefillin, and Mezuzah. That is why this design for religious writings.

Yes, I am aware of that. But the 'Stam Regular' image you uploaded is a typeface and, despite the name, it seems contravene some of the rules of construction. Is it not a font in a style reminiscent of STaM, rather than an implementation of the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules? It evokes the style of the STaM letters, but it does not follow them, if you will excuse the pun, 'religiously'.

david h's picture

> It is chanted and it is indicating (secondary) stress. Stress is part of chant.
> What I am not sure about is how this chant stress — and hence this use of meteg — relates to stress in spoken Hebrew.


I was addressing this issue — along with other grammar-cantillation- biblical hebrew issues — not long ago. My solution was very simple; especially if we're dealing with young students: to talk about prononciation with melody & prononciation without melody. Since, for example, meteg has no melody.
They understand that 'to chant' is 'to sing', singsong, so how do you sing without melody?


We don't use the meteg in spoken Hebrew.

david h's picture

> However, it is unique among the accents in that it is also sometimes encountered in otherwise unaccented text, i.e. alongside the nikudot vocalisation..... I don’t know how meteg is used independently of the full cantillation system


Dictionaries (words with millera + mille'el)

John Hudson's picture

Thanks for the clarifications, David.

How does one sing without melody? The answer to that depends on how one defines melody. If one assumes melody to include changes in tone, i.e. pitch variation, and not just changes in duration (rhythm), then such 'singing without melody' would be what is called recto tono in Latin chant. This is a very simple style of chant that is rythmic but does not involve pitch variation; it is used for e.g. the liturgical confiteor (confession) and certain prayers, and can also be used, as a fallback, if one isn't accomplished enough to sing the proper melody for e.g. an antiphon.

Jacobson's description of the interpretation of meteg in Jewish chant indicates that the reciting tone is maintained: the syllable with meteg is lengthened and sung slightly louder, but the pitch does not change. So the role of meteg is rhythmic rather than melodic in the sense used in the previous paragraph.

There is a much more general definition of melody, though: 'interacting patterns of changing events occurring in time.' And in that case merely rhythmic changes could be interpreted as 'melody', although I wonder how many lay-listeners would consider the results melodic.

John Hudson's picture

More on meteg and siluq:

With the assistant of colleagues at Libronix, makers of Bible study software and members of the SBL Font Foundation, I can provide this list of instances of single words in the Hebrew Bible text containing both meteg and siluq. In all cases, these are the final words in the cited verses (a necessary condition for siluq; see above); the first ֽ mark in each word is a meteg and the second is siluq.

The list is divided into two parts: cases in which both meteg and siluq occur on a single word, and cases in which they occur on two words conjoined by maqqef (the hyphen-like mark) with the meteg on the first word and the siluq on the second. When two words are conjoined by maqqef, the rules of accentuation are applied as if they were one word.

I. Single words.

Genesis 2:5 אֶת־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 2:6 אֶֽת־כָּל־פְּנֵֽי־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 2:22 אֶל־הָֽאָדָֽם
Genesis 3:24 הַֽחַיִּֽים
Genesis 4:3 לַֽיהוָֽה
Genesis 4:10 מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 4:14 יַֽהַרְגֵֽנִי
Genesis 4:22 נַֽעֲמָֽה
Genesis 5:2 הִבָּֽרְאָֽם
Genesis 5:12 אֶת־מַֽהֲלַלְאֵֽל
Genesis 6:16 תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂהָ
Genesis 6:19 יִֽהְיֽוּ
Genesis 6:20 לְהַֽחֲיֽוֹת
Genesis 7:4 הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 7:8 עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 7:16 בַּֽעֲדֹֽו
Genesis 8:5 הֶֽהָרִֽים
Genesis 8:8 הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 8:13 הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
Genesis 9:5 הָֽאָדָֽם
Genesis 9:9 אַֽחֲרֵיכֶֽם
Genesis 10:18 הַֽכְּנַעֲנִֽי
Genesis 10:22 וַֽאֲרָֽם
Genesis 11:6 לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת
Genesis 13:18 לַֽיהוָֽה
Genesis 15:4 יִֽירָשֶֽׁךָ
Genesis 15:8 אִֽירָשֶֽׁנָּה
Genesis 18:31 הָֽעֶשְׂרִֽים
Genesis 24:26 לַֽיהוָֽה
Genesis 24:52 לַֽיהוָֽה
Genesis 24:54 לַֽאדֹנִֽי
Genesis 24:56 לַֽאדֹנִֽי
Genesis 26:34 הַֽחִתִּֽי
Genesis 27:23 וַֽיְבָרְכֵֽהוּ
Genesis 31:40 מֵֽעֵינָֽי
Genesis 32:3 מַֽחֲנָֽיִם
Genesis 32:22 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Genesis 33:6 וַתִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶֽיןָ
Genesis 33:7 וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֽוּ
Genesis 34:3 הַֽנַּעֲרָֽ
Genesis 36:2 הַֽחִוִּֽי
Genesis 39:9 לֵֽאלֹהִֽים
Genesis 43:16 בַּֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם
Genesis 43:24 לַחֲמֹֽרֵיהֶֽם
Genesis 46:10 בֶּן־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִֽית
Genesis 49:14 הַֽמִּשְׁפְּתָֽיִם
Genesis 49:29 הַֽחִתִּֽי
Genesis 50:24 וּֽלְיַעֲקֹֽב
Exodus 4:16 לֵֽאלֹהִֽים
Exodus 4:31 וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוּֽוּ
Exodus 5:17 לַֽיהוָֽה
Exodus 6:23 וְאֶת־אִֽיתָמָֽר
Exodus 7:26 וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
Exodus 7:27 בַּֽצְפַרְדְּעִֽים
Exodus 7:29 הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִֽים
Exodus 8:16 וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
Exodus 8:25 לַֽיהוָֽה
Exodus 9:1 וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
Exodus 9:13 וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
Exodus 10:3 וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
Exodus 12:27 וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוּֽוּ
Exodus 16:13 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Exodus 19:16 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Exodus 20:11 וַֽיְקַדְּשֵֽׁהוּ
Exodus 20:18 מֵֽרָחֹֽק
Exodus 20:25 וַתְּחַֽלְלֶֽהָ
Exodus 21:35 יֶֽחֱצֽוּן
Exodus 28:14 עַל־הַֽמִּשְׁבְּצֹֽת
Exodus 28:36 לַֽיהוָֽה
Exodus 30:13 לַֽיהוָֽה
Exodus 30:20 לַֽיהוָֽה
Exodus 33:7 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Exodus 40:10 קָֽדָשִֽׁים
Leviticus 1:9 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 2:11 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 3:5 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 7:9 תִֽהְיֶֽה
Leviticus 7:25 מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
Leviticus 7:27 מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
Leviticus 8:14 הַֽחַטָּֽאת
Leviticus 9:11 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Leviticus 10:4 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Leviticus 14:6 הַֽחַיִּֽים
Leviticus 16:26 אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Leviticus 16:28 אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Leviticus 17:3 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Leviticus 20:24 מִן־הָֽעַמִּֽים
Leviticus 22:19 וּבָֽעִזִּֽים
Leviticus 23:3 מֽוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶֽם
Leviticus 23:14 מֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Leviticus 23:17 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 23:21 לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Leviticus 23:29 מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
Leviticus 23:31 מֹֽשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Leviticus 24:3 לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Leviticus 24:7 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 25:45 לַֽאֲחֻזָּֽה
Leviticus 26:13 קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת

Leviticus 26:31 נִיחֹֽחֲכֶֽם
Leviticus 26:37 אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם
Leviticus 27:2 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 27:18 מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ
Leviticus 27:22 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 27:30 לַֽיהוָֽה
Leviticus 27:32 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 1:6 בֶּן־צוּרִֽישַׁדָּֽי
Numbers 1:12 בֶּן־עַמִּֽישַׁדָּֽי
Numbers 2:25 בֶּן־עַמִּֽישַׁדָּֽי
Numbers 3:37 וּמֵֽיתְרֵיהֶֽם
Numbers 5:18 הַמְאָֽרֲרִֽים
Numbers 6:2 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 6:8 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 6:25 וִֽיחֻנֶּֽךָּ
Numbers 7:36 בֶּן־צוּרִֽישַׁדָּֽי
Numbers 7:41 בֶּן־צוּרִֽישַׁדָּֽי
Numbers 8:13 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 10:2 אֶת־הַֽמַּחֲנֽוֹת
Numbers 10:34 מִן־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 11:1 הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 11:26 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 11:27 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 11:32 הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 14:44 הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 14:45 עַד־הַֽחָרְמָֽה
Numbers 15:8 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 15:13 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 15:35 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 15:40 לֵֽאלֹהֵיכֶֽם
Numbers 18:17 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 18:26 מִן־הַֽמַּעֲשֵֽׂר
Numbers 20:19 אֶֽעֱבֹֽרָה
Numbers 21:30 עַד־מֵֽידְבָֽא
Numbers 22:2 לָֽאֱמֹרִֽי
Numbers 23:26 אֶֽעֱשֶֽׂה
Numbers 25:2 לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶֽן
Numbers 26:30 הַֽחֶלְקִֽי
Numbers 26:32 הַֽחֶפְרִֽי
Numbers 26:35 הַֽתַּחֲנִֽי
Numbers 26:40 הַֽנַּעֲמִֽי
Numbers 28:4 הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם
Numbers 28:6 לַֽיהוָֽה
Numbers 28:12 הָֽאֶחָֽד
Numbers 30:9 יִֽסְלַֽח־לָֽהּ
Numbers 30:13 יִֽסְלַֽח־לָֽהּ
Numbers 31:13 לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Numbers 31:24 אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Deuteronomy 1:12 וְרִֽיבְכֶֽם
Deuteronomy 4:43 לַֽמְנַשִּֽׁי
Deuteronomy 5:33 תִּֽירָשֽׁוּן
Deuteronomy 8:15 הַֽחַלָּמִֽישׁ
Deuteronomy 9:5 וּֽלְיַעֲקֹֽב
Deuteronomy 12:11 לַֽיהוָֽה
Deuteronomy 12:31 לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶֽם
Deuteronomy 13:3 וְנָֽעָבְדֵֽם
Deuteronomy 14:12 וְהָֽעָזְנִיָּֽה
Deuteronomy 15:2 לַֽיהוָֽה
Deuteronomy 23:5 לְקַֽלְלֶֽךָּ
Deuteronomy 23:11 הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Deuteronomy 29:7 הַֽמְנַשִּֽׁי
Deuteronomy 29:12 וּֽלְיַעֲקֹֽב
Deuteronomy 32:6 וַֽיְכֹנְנֶֽךָ
Joshua 3:2 הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Joshua 3:9 אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם
Joshua 4:10 וַֽיַּעֲבֹֽרוּ
Joshua 6:11 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Joshua 7:12 מִֽקִּרְבְּכֶֽם
Joshua 7:13 מִֽקִּרְבְּכֶֽם
Joshua 12:6 הַֽמְנַשֶּֽׁה
Joshua 13:7 הַֽמְנַשֶּֽׁה
Joshua 17:6 הַנּֽוֹתָרִֽים
Joshua 18:3 אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם
Judges 2:5 לַֽיהוָֽה
Judges 3:22 הַֽפַּרְשְׁדֹֽנָה
Judges 7:10 אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Judges 7:11 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Judges 7:14 וְאֶת־כָּל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
Judges 8:7 וְאֶת־הַֽבַּרְקֳנִֽים
Judges 9:50 וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ
Judges 20:32 אֶל־הַֽמְסִלּֽוֹת
1 Samuel 4:4 וּפִֽינְחָֽס
1 Samuel 4:6 אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
1 Samuel 4:11 וּפִֽינְחָֽס
1 Samuel 6:15 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Samuel 7:17 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Samuel 10:5 מִֽתְנַבְּאִֽים
1 Samuel 14:35 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Samuel 15:25 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Samuel 15:31 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Samuel 17:5 נְחֹֽשֶֽׁת
1 Samuel 23:28 הַֽמַּחְלְקֽוֹת
1 Samuel 27:3 הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽית
1 Samuel 30:5 הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽי
2 Samuel 2:2 הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽי
2 Samuel 2:23 וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽדוּ
2 Samuel 4:5 הַֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם
2 Samuel 6:5 וּֽבְצֶלְצֶלִֽים
2 Samuel 10:4 וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵֽם
2 Samuel 11:12 וּמִֽמָּחֳרָֽת
2 Samuel 12:29 וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ
2 Samuel 13:25 וַֽיְבָרֲכֵֽהוּ
2 Samuel 18:30 וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽד
2 Samuel 23:16 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Kings 2:19 לִֽימִינֹֽו
1 Kings 8:50 וְרִֽחֲמֽוּם
1 Kings 13:6 כְּבָרִֽאשֹׁנָֽה
1 Kings 13:27 וַֽיַּחֲבֹֽשׁוּ
1 Kings 16:16 בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
1 Kings 20:34 וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵֽהוּ
2 Kings 3:17 וּֽבְהֶמְתְּכֶֽם
2 Kings 6:15 נַֽעֲשֶֽׂה
2 Kings 9:33 וַֽיִּרְמְסֶֽנָּה
2 Kings 10:26 וַֽיִּשְׂרְפֽוּהָ
2 Kings 13:18 וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽד
2 Kings 18:13 וַֽיִּתְפְּשֵֽׂם
2 Kings 19:5 אֶל־יְשַֽׁעַיָֽהוּ
2 Kings 19:18 וַֽיְאַבְּדֽוּם
2 Kings 19:36 בְּנִֽינְוֵֽה
2 Kings 20:1 תִֽחְיֶֽה
Isaiah 3:19 וְהָֽרְעָלֽוֹת
Isaiah 7:6 בֶּן־טָֽבְאַֽל
Isaiah 7:7 תִֽהְיֶֽה
Isaiah 7:23 יִֽהְיֶֽה
Isaiah 8:13 מַֽעֲרִֽצְכֶֽם
Isaiah 12:1 וּֽתְנַחֲמֵֽנִי
Isaiah 12:2 לִֽישׁוּעָֽה
Isaiah 19:19 לַֽיהוָֽה
Isaiah 20:1 וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ
Isaiah 36:1 וַֽיִּתְפְּשֵֽׂם
Isaiah 36:7 תִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֽוּ
Isaiah 37:19 וַֽיְאַבְּדֽוּם
Isaiah 37:37 בְּנִֽינְוֵֽה
Isaiah 38:1 תִֽחְיֶֽה
Isaiah 39:1 וַֽיֶּחֱזָֽק
Isaiah 46:6 אַף־יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוּֽוּ
Isaiah 58:10 כַּֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם
Isaiah 59:12 יְדַֽעֲנֽוּם
Isaiah 60:10 רִֽחַמְתִּֽיךְ
Jeremiah 5:27 וַֽיַּעֲשִֽׁירוּ
Jeremiah 8:2 יִֽהְיֽוּ
Jeremiah 10:3 בַּֽמַּעֲצָֽד
Jeremiah 13:18 תִּֽפְאַרְתְּכֶֽם
Jeremiah 16:5 וְאֶת־הָֽרַחֲמִֽים
Jeremiah 18:7 וּֽלְהַאֲבִֽיד
Jeremiah 23:22 מַֽעַלְלֵיהֶֽם
Jeremiah 25:33 יִֽהְיֽוּ
Jeremiah 27:4 אֶל־אֲדֹֽנֵיכֶֽם
Jeremiah 27:12 וִֽחְיֽוּ
Jeremiah 28:10 וַֽיִּשְׁבְּרֵֽהוּ
Jeremiah 30:3 וִֽירֵשֽׁוּהָ
Jeremiah 32:1 לִנְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּֽר
Jeremiah 33:7 כְּבָרִֽאשֹׁנָֽה
Jeremiah 40:5 וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵֽהוּ
Jeremiah 48:19 מַה־נִּֽהְיָֽתָה
Jeremiah 51:62 תִּֽהְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 6:3 בָּמֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם
Ezekiel 7:24 מְקַֽדְשֵׁיהֶֽם
Ezekiel 14:10 יִֽהְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 18:20 תִּֽהְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 18:22 יִֽחְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 18:32 וִֽחְיֽוּ
Ezekiel 20:42 לַאֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם
Ezekiel 23:45 בִּֽידֵיהֶֽן
Ezekiel 30:3 יִֽהְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 30:7 תִּֽהְיֶֽינָה
Ezekiel 31:12 וַֽיִּטְּשֻֽׁהוּ
Ezekiel 33:4 יִֽהְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 33:10 נִֽחְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 33:16 יִֽחְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 33:19 יִֽחְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 34:26 יִֽהְיֽוּ
Ezekiel 36:31 תּוֹעֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם
Ezekiel 37:9 וְיִֽחְיֽוּ
Ezekiel 38:21 תִּֽהְיֶֽה
Ezekiel 40:17 אֶל־הָרִֽצְפָֽה
Ezekiel 43:24 לַֽיהוָֽה
Ezekiel 44:11 לְשָֽׁרְתָֽם
Hosea 2:21 וּֽבְרַחֲמִֽים
Hosea 4:11 יִֽקַּֽח־לֵֽב
Hosea 4:17 הַֽנַּֽח־לוֹֽ
Hosea 10:9 עַֽלְוָֽה
Hosea 11:6 מִֽמֹּעֲצ֖וֹתֵיהֶֽם
Joel 1:2 אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Amos 3:2 כָּל־עֲוֹנֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Amos 3:10 בְּאַרְמְנֽוֹתֵיהֶֽם
Amos 4:4 מַעְשְׂרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Amos 5:4 וִֽחְיֽוּ
Amos 5:21 בְּעַצְּרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Micah 1:1 וִירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם
Micah 7:3 וַֽיְעַבְּתֽוּהָ
Micah 7:13 מַֽעַלְלֵיהֶֽם
Habakkuk 1:10 וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ
Zechariah 1:5 יִֽחְיֽוּ
Zechariah 8:5 בִּרְחֹֽבֹתֶֽיהָ
Zechariah 12:4 בַּֽעִוָּרֽוֹן
Zechariah 14:8 יִֽהְיֶֽה
Psalm 7:13 וַֽיְכוֹנְנֶֽהָ
Psalm 9:12 עֲלִֽילוֹתָֽיו
Psalm 10:16 מֵֽאַרְצֹֽו
Psalm 17:7 בִּֽימִינֶֽךָ
Psalm 18:5 יְבַֽעֲתֽוּנִי
Psalm 18:44 יַֽעַבְדֽוּנִי
Psalm 18:46 מִֽמִּסְגְּרֽוֹתֵיהֶֽם
Psalm 22:5 וַֽתְּפַלְּטֵֽמוֹ
Psalm 23:4 יְנַֽחֲמֻֽנִי
Psalm 27:10 יַֽאַסְפֵֽנִי
Psalm 31:4 וּֽתְנַהֲלֵֽנִי
Psalm 31:5 מָֽעוּזִּֽי
Psalm 33:9 וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽד
Psalm 34:8 וַֽיְחַלְּצֵֽם
Psalm 35:1 אֶת־לֹֽחֲמָֽי
Psalm 35:18 אֲהַֽלְלֶֽךָּ
Psalm 35:25 בִּֽלַּעֲנֽוּהוּ
Psalm 37:6 כַּֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם
Psalm 38:19 מֵֽחַטָּאתִֽי
Psalm 42:12 וֵֽאלֹהָֽי
Psalm 43:5 וֵֽאלֹהָֽי
Psalm 44:3 וַֽתְּשַׁלְּחֵֽם
Psalm 44:25 וְֽלַחֲצֵֽנוּ
Psalm 45:8 מֵֽחֲבֵרֶֽיךָ
Psalm 50:15 וּֽתְכַבְּדֵֽנִי
Psalm 56:14 הַֽחַיִּֽים
Psalm 58:3 תְּפַלֵּֽסֽוּן
Psalm 60:10 הִתְרֹעָֽעִֽי
Psalm 62:8 בֵּֽאלֹהִֽים
Psalm 62:13 כְּֽמַעֲשֵֽׂהוּ
Psalm 66:12 לָֽרְוָיָֽה
Psalm 68:10 כֽוֹנַנְתָּֽהּ
Psalm 70:2 חֽוּשָֽׁה
Psalm 71:21 תְּֽנַחֲמֵֽנִי
Psalm 72:11 יַֽעַבְדֽוּהוּ
Psalm 72:15 יְבָרֲכֶֽנְהֽוּ
Psalm 77:14 כֵּֽאלֹהִֽים
Psalm 78:22 בִּֽישׁוּעָתוֹֽ
Psalm 78:40 בִּֽישִׁימֽוֹן
Psalm 78:47 בַּֽחֲנָמַֽל
Psalm 80:12 יֽוֹנְקוֹתֶֽיהָ
Psalm 81:9 אִם־תִּֽשְׁמַֽע־לִֽי
Psalm 81:13 בְּֽמוֹעֲצוֹתֵיהֶֽם
Psalm 86:8 כְּֽמַעֲשֶֽׂיךָ
Psalm 89:1 הָֽאֶזְרָחִֽי
Psalm 91:15 וַֽאֲכַבְּדֵֽהוּ
Psalm 91:16 בִּֽישׁוּעָתִֽי
Psalm 99:2 עַל־כָּל־הָֽעַמִּֽים
Psalm 102:27 וְֽיַחֲלֹֽפוּ
Psalm 104:18 לַֽשְׁפַנִּֽים
Psalm 104:32 וְֽיֶעֱשָֽׁנוּ
Psalm 105:20 וַֽיְפַתְּחֵֽהוּ
Psalm 106:14 בִּֽישִׁימֽוֹן
Psalm 106:23 מֵֽהַשְׁחִֽית
Psalm 106:35 מַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶֽם
Psalm 106:39 בְּמַֽעַלְלֵיהֶֽם
Psalm 109:7 לַֽחֲטָאָֽה
Psalm 109:23 כָּֽאַרְבֶּֽה
Psalm 109:30 אֲהַֽלְלֶֽנּוּ
Psalm 116:9 הַֽחַיִּֽים
Psalm 118:14 לִֽישׁוּעָֽה
Psalm 118:21 לִֽישׁוּעָֽה
Psalm 119:49 יִֽחַלְתָּֽנִי
Psalm 119:52 וָֽאֶתְנֶחָֽם
Psalm 119:70 שִֽׁעֲשָֽׁעְתִּי
Psalm 119:77 שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעָֽי
Psalm 119:82 תְּֽנַחֲמֵֽנִי
Psalm 119:90 וַֽתַּעֲמֹֽד
Psalm 119:121 לְעֹֽשְׁקָֽי
Psalm 120:1 וַֽיַּעֲנֵֽנִי
Psalm 121:3 שֹֽׁמְרֶֽךָ
Psalm 124:5 הַזֵּֽידוֹנִֽים
Psalm 135:7 מֵאֽוֹצְרוֹתָֽיו
Psalm 144:3 וַֽתְּחַשְּׁבֵֽהוּ
Psalm 144:5 וְֽיֶעֱשָֽׁנוּ
Job 2:11 וּֽלְנַחֲמֹֽו
Job 4:12 מֶֽנְהֽוּ
Job 5:14 בַֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם
Job 6:4 יַֽעַרְכֽוּנִי
Job 6:9 וִֽיבַצְּעֵֽנִי
Job 6:27 עַל־רֵֽיעֲכֶֽם
Job 7:15 מֵֽעַצְמוֹתָֽי
Job 9:20 וַֽיַּעְקְשֵֽׁנִי
Job 10:8 וַֽתְּבַלְּעֵֽנִי
Job 14:1 וּֽשְׂבַֽע־רֹֽגֶז
Job 14:20 וַֽתְּשַׁלְּחֵֽהוּ
Job 15:26 מָֽגִנָּֽיו
Job 17:6 אֶֽהְיֶֽה
Job 17:14 לָֽרִמָּֽה
Job 21:2 תַּנְח֥וּמֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
Job 22:7 תִּֽמְנַֽע־לָֽחֶם
Job 24:22 בַּֽחַיִּֽין
Job 26:6 לָֽאֲבַדּֽוֹן
Job 28:13 הַֽחַיִּֽים
Job 30:18 יַֽאַזְרֵֽנִי
Job 32:20 וְאֶֽעֱנֶֽה
Job 33:22 לַֽמְמִתִֽים
Job 35:3 מֵֽחַטָּאתִֽי
Job 36:3 אֶֽתֵּֽן־צֶֽדֶק
Job 37:21 וַֽתְּטַהֲרֵֽם
Job 39:18 וּלְרֹֽכְבֹֽו
Job 40:30 כְּֽנַעֲנִֽים
Job 41:8 בֵֽינֵיהֶֽם
Proverbs 3:6 אֹֽרְחֹתֶֽיךָ
Proverbs 4:4 וֶֽחְיֵֽה
Proverbs 9:15 אֹֽרְחוֹתָֽם
Proverbs 20:13 שְֽׂבַֽע־לָֽחֶם
Proverbs 22:3 וְֽנֶעֱנָֽשׁוּ
Proverbs 22:13 אֵֽרָצֵֽחַ
Proverbs 23:25 יֽוֹלַדְתֶּֽךָ
Proverbs 25:16 וַהֲקֵֽאתוֹֽ
Proverbs 28:19 יִֽשְׂבַּֽע־רִֽישׁ
Proverbs 29:4 יֶֽהֶרְסֶֽנָּה
Proverbs 30:22 יִֽשְׂבַּֽע־לָֽחֶם
Proverbs 31:20 לָֽאֶבְיֽוֹן
Proverbs 31:24 לַֽכְּנַעֲנִֽי
Proverbs 31:28 וַֽיְהַֽלְלָֽהּ
Ruth 3:5 אֶֽעֱשֶֽׂה
Ruth 4:19 אֶת־עַמִּֽינָדָֽב
Song of Solomon 2:9 מִן־הַֽחֲרַכִּֽים
Song of Solomon 6:2 שֽׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים
Song of Solomon 6:9 וַֽיְהַלְלֽוּהָ
Song of Solomon 7:1 הַֽמַּחֲנָֽיִם
Song of Solomon 7:7 בַּתַּֽעֲנוּגִֽים
Lamentations 5:5 הֽוּנַֽח־לָֽנוּ
Esther 3:2 יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶֽה
Esther 4:3 לָֽרַבִּֽים
Esther 8:10 הָֽרַמָּכִֽים
Esther 9:22 לָֽאֶבְיוֹנִֽים
Esther 9:24 וּֽלְאַבְּדָֽם
Daniel 1:3 וּמִן־הַֽפַּרְתְּמִֽים
Daniel 3:6 יָקִֽדְתָּֽא
Daniel 3:11 יָקִֽדְתָּֽא
Daniel 3:14 סָֽגְדִֽין
Daniel 3:20 יָקִֽדְתָּֽא
Daniel 3:21 יָקִֽדְתָּֽא
Daniel 3:28 לֵאלָֽהֲהֽוֹן
Daniel 4:3 יְהֽוֹדְעֻנַּֽנִי
Daniel 5:6 נָֽקְשָֽׁן
Daniel 5:9 מִֽשְׁתַּבְּשִֽׁין
Daniel 5:12 יְהַֽחֲוֵֽה
Daniel 7:19 רָֽפְסָֽה
Daniel 7:27 וְיִֽשְׁתַּמְּעֽוּן
Daniel 8:10 וַֽתִּרְמְסֵֽם
Daniel 9:24 קָֽדָשִֽׁים
Daniel 10:18 וַֽיְחַזְּקֵֽנִי
Ezra 1:2 בִּֽיהוּדָֽה
Ezra 4:15 הָֽחָרְבַֽת
Nehemiah 6:13 יְחָֽרְפֽוּנִי
Nehemiah 6:18 בֶּֽרֶכְיָֽה
Nehemiah 6:19 לְיָֽרְאֵֽנִי
Nehemiah 8:10 מָֽעֻזְּכֶֽם
Nehemiah 10:6 עֹֽבַדְיָֽה
Nehemiah 11:7 בֶּן־יְשַֽׁעְיָֽה
Nehemiah 11:32 עֲנָֽנְיָֽה
Nehemiah 12:6 יְדַֽעְיָֽה
Nehemiah 12:22 הַפָּֽרְסִֽי
Nehemiah 12:46 לֵֽאלֹהִֽים
1 Chronicles 1:16 וְאֶת־הַֽחֲמָתִֽי
1 Chronicles 2:53 וְהָאֶשְׁתָּ֖אֻֽלִֽי
1 Chronicles 3:1 הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽית
1 Chronicles 4:2 הַצָּֽרְעָתִֽי
1 Chronicles 4:30 וּבְצִֽיקְלָֽג
1 Chronicles 4:37 בֶּן־שְׁמַֽעְיָֽה
1 Chronicles 5:6 לָרֽאוּבֵנִֽי
1 Chronicles 12:16 וְלַֽמַּעֲרָֽב
1 Chronicles 15:17 בֶּן־קֽוּשָׁיָֽהוּ
1 Chronicles 16:36 לַֽיהוָֽה
1 Chronicles 18:11 וּמֵֽעֲמָלֵֽק
1 Chronicles 19:4 וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵֽם
1 Chronicles 20:1 וַיֶּֽהֶרְסֶֽהָ
1 Chronicles 26:23 לָֽעָזִּיאֵלִֽי
2 Chronicles 1:14 בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 Chronicles 3:16 בַּֽשַּׁרְשְׁרֽוֹת
2 Chronicles 4:3 בְּמֻֽצַקְתּוֹֽ
2 Chronicles 4:12 הָֽעַמּוּדִֽים
2 Chronicles 5:12 בַּחֲצֹֽצְרֽוֹת
2 Chronicles 10:4 וְנַֽעַבְדֶֽךָּ
2 Chronicles 10:11 בָּֽעֲקְרַבִּֽים
2 Chronicles 12:13 הָֽעַמֹּנִֽית
2 Chronicles 19:1 לִֽירוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 Chronicles 19:3 הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים
2 Chronicles 20:11 הֽוֹרַשְׁתָּֽנוּ
2 Chronicles 20:27 מֵֽאוֹיְבֵיהֶֽם
2 Chronicles 23:8 אֶת־הַֽמַּחְלְקֽוֹת
2 Chronicles 23:17 הַֽמִּזְבְּחֽוֹת
2 Chronicles 24:5 הַֽלְוִיִּֽם
2 Chronicles 24:13 וַֽיְאַמְּצֻֽהוּ
2 Chronicles 26:9 וַֽיְחַזְּקֵֽם
2 Chronicles 29:3 וַֽיְחַזְּקֵֽם
2 Chronicles 29:29 וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֽוּ
2 Chronicles 29:30 וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֽוּ
2 Chronicles 29:34 מֵֽהַכֹּהֲנִֽים
2 Chronicles 30:3 לִֽירוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 Chronicles 32:3 וַֽיַּעְזְרֽוּהוּ
2 Chronicles 33:13 הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים
2 Chronicles 33:21 בִּֽירוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 Chronicles 33:22 וַיַּֽעַבְדֵֽם
2 Chronicles 34:9 יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 Chronicles 36:10 וִֽירוּשָׁלִָֽם

II. Words with conjoined with maqqef.

Genesis 1:3 וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר
Genesis 1:7 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
Genesis 1:9 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
Genesis 1:11 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
Genesis 1:15 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
Genesis 1:24 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
Genesis 1:30 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
Genesis 2:23 לֻֽקֳחָה־זֹּֽאת
Genesis 6:9 הִֽתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹֽחַ
Genesis 14:21 קַֽח־לָֽךְ
Genesis 21:6 יִֽצְחַק־לִֽי
Genesis 22:24 וְאֶֽת־מַעֲכָֽה
Genesis 23:18 שַֽׁעַר־עִירֹֽו
Genesis 25:28 אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב
Genesis 27:13 קַֽח־לִֽי
Genesis 35:15 בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
Genesis 45:9 אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹֽד
Genesis 48:5 יִֽהְיוּ־לִֽי
Genesis 48:19 מְלֹֽא־הַגּוֹיִֽם
Genesis 49:20 מַֽעֲדַנֵּי־מֶֽלֶךְ
Genesis 50:7 אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרָֽיִם
Exodus 2:15 עַֽל־הַבְּאֵֽר
Exodus 2:24 וְאֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב
Exodus 10:14 יִֽהְיֶה־כֵּֽן
Exodus 14:4 וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן
Exodus 16:26 יִֽהְיֶה־בּוֹֽ
Exodus 21:34 יִֽהְיֶה־לּוֹֽ
Exodus 21:36 יִֽהְיֶה־לּוֹֽ
Exodus 32:3 אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹֽן
Exodus 33:5 אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
Exodus 40:6 אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵֽד
Leviticus 27:9 יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ
Leviticus 27:10 יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ
Numbers 2:12 בֶּן־צוּרִֽי־שַׁדָּֽי
Numbers 18:10 יִֽהְיֶה־לָּֽךְ
Numbers 20:2 וְעַֽל־אַהֲרֹֽן
Numbers 31:32 וַחֲמֵֽשֶׁת־אֲלָפִֽים
Deuteronomy 7:8 מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרָֽיִם
Deuteronomy 8:10 נָֽתַן־לָֽךְ
Deuteronomy 11:28 לֹֽא־יְדַעְתֶּֽם
Deuteronomy 11:31 וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם־בָּֽהּ
Deuteronomy 12:10 וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם־בֶּֽטַח
Deuteronomy 16:17 נָֽתַן־לָֽךְ
Deuteronomy 33:10 עַֽל־מִזְבְּחֶֽךָ
Joshua 2:19 תִּֽהְיֶה־בּוֹֽ
Joshua 5:1 בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
Joshua 12:5 מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶשְׁבּֽוֹן
Joshua 16:1 בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
Joshua 18:22 וּבֵֽית־אֵֽל
Joshua 19:1 בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָֽה
Judges 4:24 מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָֽעַן
Judges 6:31 אֶֽת־מִזְבְּחֹֽו
Judges 6:32 אֶֽת־מִזְבְּחֹֽו
Judges 6:39 יִֽהְיֶה־טָּֽל
Judges 9:47 מִֽגְדַּל־שְׁכֶֽם
Judges 17:7 גָֽר־שָֽׁם
Judges 18:6 תֵּֽלְכוּ־בָֽהּ
Judges 18:14 מַֽה־תַּעֲשֽׂוּ
Judges 20:13 בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
Judges 20:33 מִמַּֽעֲרֵה־גָֽבַע
1 Samuel 6:18 בֵּֽית־הַשִּׁמְשִֽׁי
1 Samuel 10:3 נֵֽבֶל־יָֽיִן
1 Samuel 17:15 בֵּֽית־לָֽחֶם
1 Samuel 20:4 וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
1 Samuel 21:13 מֶֽלֶךְ־גַּֽת
1 Samuel 24:1 עֵֽין־גֶּֽדִי
1 Samuel 24:13 תִֽהְיֶה־בָּֽךְ
1 Samuel 24:14 תִֽהְיֶה־בָּֽךְ
1 Samuel 28:11 הַֽעֲלִי־לִֽי
2 Samuel 3:9 אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לּוֹֽ
2 Samuel 12:6 לֹֽא־חָמָֽל
2 Samuel 13:39 כִּֽי־מֵֽת
2 Samuel 14:13 אֶֽת־נִדְּחֹֽו
2 Samuel 16:20 מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶֽׂה
2 Samuel 19:39 אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
2 Samuel 21:14 אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵֽן
2 Samuel 22:6 מֹֽקְשֵׁי־מָֽוֶת
2 Samuel 24:12 וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
1 Kings 6:6 בְּקִֽירוֹת־הַבָּֽיִת
1 Kings 8:37 כָּֽל־מַחֲלָֽה
1 Kings 8:57 וְאַֽל־יִטְּשֵֽׁנוּ
1 Kings 12:27 מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה
1 Kings 13:10 אֶל־בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
1 Kings 13:28 אֶֽת־הַחֲמֽוֹר
1 Kings 15:27 עַֽל־גִּבְּתֽוֹן
2 Kings 2:2 בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
2 Kings 3:21 עַֽל־הַגְּבֽוּל
2 Kings 9:14 מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲרָֽם
2 Kings 9:18 וְלֹֽא־שָֽׁב
2 Kings 9:19 אֶֽל־אַחֲרָֽי
2 Kings 15:12 וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
2 Kings 16:10 לְכָֽל־מַעֲשֵֽׂהוּ
2 Kings 18:31 מֵֽי־בוֹרֹֽו
2 Kings 19:31 תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־זֹּֽאת
2 Kings 23:4 בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
2 Kings 23:17 בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
2 Kings 23:19 בְּבֵֽית־אֵֽל
Isaiah 8:17 וְקִוֵּ֖יתִֽי־לוֹֽ
Isaiah 11:7 יֹֽאכַל־תֶּֽבֶן
Isaiah 18:1 לְנַֽהֲרֵי־כֽוּשׁ
Isaiah 27:5 יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לִּֽי
Isaiah 28:28 לֹֽא־יְדֻקֶּֽנּוּ
Isaiah 37:32 תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־זֹּֽאת
Isaiah 43:12 וַֽאֲנִי־אֵֽל
Isaiah 48:11 לֹֽא־אֶתֵּֽן
Jeremiah 7:9 לֹֽא־יְדַעְתֶּֽם
Jeremiah 10:23 אֶֽת־צַעֲדֹֽו
Jeremiah 33:17 בֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
Jeremiah 35:9 יִֽהְיֶה־לָּֽנוּ
Jeremiah 36:28 מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה
Jeremiah 39:13 מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶֽל
Jeremiah 42:7 אֶֽל־יִרְמְיָֽהוּ
Jeremiah 45:5 תֵּֽלֶךְ־שָֽׁם
Ezekiel 4:5 בֵּֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
Ezekiel 10:15 בִּֽנְהַר־כְּבָֽר
Ezekiel 17:20 מָֽעַל־בִּֽי
Ezekiel 32:9 לֹֽא־יְדַעְתָּֽם
Ezekiel 33:17 לֹֽא־יִתָּכֵֽן
Ezekiel 45:17 בֵּֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
Ezekiel 47:5 לֹֽא־יֵעָבֵֽר
Hosea 2:1 אֵֽל־חָֽי
Hosea 2:17 מֵאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרָֽיִם
Hosea 2:24 אֶֽת־יִזְרְעֶֽאל
Hosea 10:3 מַה־יַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽנוּ
Amos 5:6 לְבֵֽית־אֵֽל
Micah 5:11 יִֽהְיוּ־לָֽךְ
Zechariah 12:10 עַֽל־הַבְּכֽוֹר
Zechariah 14:7 יִֽהְיֶה־אֽוֹר
Malachi 1:2 אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב
Psalm 6:6 יֽוֹדֶה־לָּֽךְ
Psalm 8:7 תַֽחַת־רַגְלָֽיו
Psalm 10:6 לֹֽא־בְרָֽע
Psalm 14:1 עֹֽשֵׂה־טֽוֹב
Psalm 18:13 וְגַֽחֲלֵי־אֵֽשׁ
Psalm 18:14 וְגַֽחֲלֵי־אֵֽשׁ
Psalm 37:9 יִֽירְשׁוּ־אָֽרֶץ
Psalm 45:12 וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִי־לוֹֽ
Psalm 53:2 עֹֽשֵׂה־טֽוֹב
Psalm 63:12 דֽוֹבְרֵי־שָֽׁקֶר
Psalm 69:15 וּמִמַּֽעֲמַקֵּי־מָֽיִם
Psalm 71:7 מַֽחֲסִי־עֹֽז
Psalm 71:9 אַֽל־תַּעַזְבֵֽנִי
Psalm 74:7 מִֽשְׁכַּן־שְׁמֶֽךָ
Psalm 76:5 מֵֽהַרְרֵי־טָֽרֶף
Psalm 78:34 וְשִֽׁחֲרוּ־אֵֽל
Psalm 80:11 אַֽרְזֵי־אֵֽל
Psalm 84:3 אֵֽל־חָֽי
Psalm 88:5 אֵֽין־אֱיָֽל
Psalm 99:7 נָֽתַן־לָֽמוֹ
Psalm 104:6 יַֽעַמְדוּ־מָֽיִם
Psalm 104:26 לְשַֽׂחֶק־בּוֹֽ
Psalm 104:35 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 105:23 בְּאֶֽרֶץ־חָֽם
Psalm 105:26 בָּֽחַר־בּוֹֽ
Psalm 105:45 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 106:48 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 109:1 אַֽל־תֶּחֱרַֽשׁ
Psalm 113:9 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 115:18 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 116:19 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 117:2 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 119:11 אֶֽחֱטָא־לָֽךְ
Psalm 135:21 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 140:11 בַּֽל־יָקֽוּמוּ
Psalm 141:10 עַֽד־אֶעֱבֽוֹר
Psalm 146:10 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 147:20 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 148:14 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 149:9 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Psalm 150:6 הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ
Job 5:27 דַֽע־לָֽךְ
Job 8:3 יְעַוֵּֽת־צֶֽדֶק
Job 9:12 מַֽה־תַּעֲשֶֽׂה
Job 9:34 אַֽל־תְּבַעֲתַֽנִּי
Job 11:20 מַֽפַּח־נָֽפֶשׁ
Job 13:21 אַֽל־תְּבַעֲתַֽנִּי
Job 15:23 יֽוֹם־חֹֽשֶׁךְ
Job 15:34 אָֽהֳלֵי־שֹֽׁחַד
Job 18:21 לֹא־יָדַֽע־אֵֽל
Job 38:2 בְּֽלִי־דָֽעַת
Job 40:20 יְשַֽׂחֲקוּ־שָֽׁם
Proverbs 3:15 יִֽשְׁווּ־בָֽהּ
Proverbs 4:2 אַֽל־תַּעֲזֹֽבוּ
Proverbs 4:5 מֵֽאִמְרֵי־פִֽי
Proverbs 8:11 יִֽשְׁווּ־בָֽהּ
Proverbs 15:11 בְּֽנֵי־אָדָֽם
Proverbs 19:27 מֵֽאִמְרֵי־דָֽעַת
Proverbs 25:1 מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה
Proverbs 25:6 אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹֽד
Proverbs 25:26 לִפְנֵֽי־רָשָֽׁע
Proverbs 26:17 לֹּֽא־לוֹֽ
Proverbs 27:9 מֵֽעֲצַת־נָֽפֶשׁ
Proverbs 27:17 פְּנֵֽי־רֵעֵֽהוּ
Ruth 1:2 וַיִּֽהְיוּ־שָֽׁם
Ruth 2:12 תַּֽחַת־כְּנָפָֽיו
Ruth 3:1 יִֽיטַב־לָֽךְ
Ecclesiastes 2:16 עִֽם־הַכְּסִֽיל
Ecclesiastes 8:4 מַֽה־תַּעֲשֶֽׂה
Ecclesiastes 9:7 אֶֽת־מַעֲשֶֽׂיךָ
Esther 2:19 בְּשַֽׁעַר־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
Esther 4:6 שַֽׁעַר־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
Esther 4:10 אֶֽל־מָרְדֳּכָֽי
Esther 4:15 אֶֽל־מָרְדֳּכָֽי
Daniel 2:3 אֶֽת־הַחֲלֽוֹם
Daniel 2:20 לֵֽהּ־הִֽיא
Daniel 9:7 מָֽעֲלוּ־בָֽךְ
Ezra 3:10 מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
Ezra 4:3 מֶֽלֶךְ־פָּרָֽס
Ezra 4:5 מֶֽלֶךְ־פָּרָֽס
Ezra 4:24 מֶֽלֶךְ־פָּרָֽס
Ezra 8:36 וְאֶת־בֵּֽית־הָאֱלֹהִֽים
Nehemiah 3:4 בֶּֽן־בַּעֲנָֽא
Nehemiah 9:12 יֵֽלְכוּ־בָֽהּ
Nehemiah 9:19 יֵֽלְכוּ־בָֽהּ
Nehemiah 9:22 מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָֽׁן
Nehemiah 11:30 עַד־גֵּֽיא־הִנֹּֽם
Nehemiah 12:30 וְאֶֽת־הַחוֹמָֽה
1 Chronicles 2:45 בֵֽית־צֽוּר
1 Chronicles 2:48 וְאֶֽת־תִּרְחֲנָֽה
1 Chronicles 5:17 מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
1 Chronicles 11:21 לֹֽא־בָֽא
1 Chronicles 18:3 בִּֽנְהַר־פְּרָֽת
1 Chronicles 18:9 מֶֽלֶךְ־צוֹבָֽה
1 Chronicles 21:10 וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
1 Chronicles 27:16 בֶּֽן־מַעֲכָֽה
1 Chronicles 29:17 לְהִֽתְנַדֶּב־לָֽךְ
2 Chronicles 1:12 יִֽהְיֶה־כֵּֽן
2 Chronicles 6:28 וְכָֽל־מַחֲלָֽה
2 Chronicles 6:39 חָֽטְאוּ־לָֽךְ
2 Chronicles 21:12 מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה
2 Chronicles 26:15 כִּֽי־חָזָֽק
2 Chronicles 29:27 מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
2 Chronicles 32:8 מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה
2 Chronicles 32:23 מֵאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵֽן
2 Chronicles 32:30 בְּכָֽל־מַעֲשֵֽׂהוּ

david h's picture


> The answer to that depends on how one defines melody....

Or the tradition.

BTW, do you have the book by Haik Vantoura -- the Music of The Bible Reveald? and the CD (the same title)?

About the meteg: the original name was geresh.

About Gesenius & meteg: classic, good, (I didn't read it for a long time), but there're errors. e.g. (b) The firm Meteg..... With the Qames of the plural forms of...[houses, p.65] ???????

No such animal.

gohebrew's picture


> Yes, I am aware of that. But the ’Stam Regular’ image you uploaded is a typeface and, despite the name, it seems contravene some of the rules of construction. Is it not a font in a style reminiscent of STaM, rather than an implementation of the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules? It evokes the style of the STaM letters, but it does not follow them, if you will excuse the pun, ’religiously’.

Please enlighten me.

I admit that I placed little attention on the sample that you uploaded which I translated for you, in comparison to the sample which I uploaded.

Clearly, you spot significant differences between them. One is "reminiscent of STaM", while one is merely a font, "an implementation of the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules; it evokes the style of the STaM letters, but it does not follow them."

I don't understand or even see your distinction. Please explain.

Are you referring to a totally different typeface design, known as: "Sefer Torah Sans Script"? I implemented it without the taggim, as I was instructed by the Chief Rabbi of Crown Heights, Brooklyn. He feared that the font would be misused, and suggested this alternative.

The font, "STaM", which I uploaded earlier is not used to write an actual Sefer Torah scroll, Tefillin, or Mezuzah. Rather, religious writings about Torah topics or actual Tanach texts are typesey using this font style.

John Hudson's picture

Israel, you have misunderstood me. The typeface specimen you uploaded is indeed very similar to the writing in the back of my copy of Happellio's Lingua Sanctae, about which you said: 'The typeface design is Stam.'

But the image I uploaded is not a typeface at all: it is handwritten, which was my point in saying that it would make more sense to say that the Stam Regular type you showed is in the style of the earlier writing, rather than the other way around.

The second point is that the Stam Regular font, despite the name, is not actual STaM lettering: i.e. 'not an implementation of the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules'. It is a style of letter that has associations with religious texts, and hence can be used to evoke these associations, but the shapes of the letters differ from those of real STaM. Hence I find the name of the typeface confusing.

John Hudson's picture

David, no I don't have the Haik-Vantoura book, although I probably should. But I'm concerned that I wouldn't be able to read much of the oppositional material from those who rejected her analysis, presuming it will be in French, Hebrew or other languages that I can't read.

gohebrew's picture


I know that your sample is handwriting, and both my recent samples are from font software.

One of my samples is just like that which is used by sofer STaM, a Hebrew scribe of STaM, to compose by quill a Sefer Torah parchment (which is later sewed together), 5 parchments for Tefillin, and one small parchment for a Mezuzah. This is a font, without the taggim, the ornaments on top of some the letters. The scribe hand draws the letters according to different rules. the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules are actually very old. Maimonides discussed then as well. Halacha authorities debate how to both correctly draw certain letters and at the same time incorporate ideas discussed in Jewish mystical writing, to evoke these ideas while wearing the Tefillin.

I do not understand your repeated reference to the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules. They pertain to the Sefer Torah Scroll Sans letter shapes, but with the taggim. These rules do not pertain to the font called, "Stam".

I agree that the sample handwriting is not Stam. Rather, it resembles the typeface called Stam, but preceded it by many hundreds of years (?) .

Do you have other samples of old Hebrew handwriting?

The other one of my samples is the Stam font, used as a typesetting font by some people for some religious writings. There is no rule here to follow. The religious writings could be in FrankReuhl or Henri.

Stam was simply selected as a name, as you say, to evoke a religious feeling. Nowadays, few typesetters use Stam at all.

John Hudson's picture

I do not understand your repeated reference to the Vaad Mishmereth STaM rules. They pertain to the Sefer Torah Scroll Sans letter shapes, but with the taggim. These rules do not pertain to the font called, “Stam”

Yes, that is exactly my point: the typeface called 'Stam' does not contain the shapes of letters that I associate with that word. I am saying that I think it was a bad choice of name.

Do you have other samples of old Hebrew handwriting?

I have a lot of reproductions of Hebrew writing in my palaeography books (mostly mediaeval but also some very early examples, about which I will probably post some thoughts later in another thread). I don't have many other actual handwritten samples, but I have looked at some in manuscript collections.

gohebrew's picture


> I think it was a bad choice of name.

I agree. But what can we do now, as people think of that style as Stam.

> I have a lot of reproductions of Hebrew writing in my palaeography books (mostly mediaeval but also some very early examples, about which I will probably post some thoughts later in another thread).

I am interested in the letter forns from a designer's view point, and also the content from a religious Jew's point of view.

The earlier sample that you posted revealed a person who praised G-d for attracting youth with His will and input of two types of people: both those knowledgeable and those with "understanding".

Was he himself a youth who appreciated what G-d did for him?

Chajmke's picture

Hebrew typefaces in german speaking regions. A site you MUST know:

click "Datenbank" (database), click on "Detail" and you are also able to see details of the book the font is taken from. Intersting to notice: There are some samples from Ichenhausen. Ichenhausen is the place where Rafael Frank was born...


William Berkson's picture

Wow! Thanks, Chajm, that's a wonderful resource.

hrant's picture

I just have one question (for now):
Is it really true that Hebrew readers really don't mind fonts
with "backslant"? I mean slanting to the right - the opposite
direction of reading. (Which AFAIK is not OK in Arabic BTW.)

Also: where is this backslant coming from? Copying
Latin, or maybe a right-handed-writer preference?


david h's picture

> Is it really true that Hebrew readers really don’t mind fonts with “backslant”?

You don't see it a lot; Maybe an ad or something similar; Coming from? I guess copying Latin.

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