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I was just reading this thread and Catharsis said "The font is now 1050 ems tall; that's no problem these days, right?". This again made me aware that despite my experience with type design, I still have no idea what the dimensions of a typeface should be.
I made quite comprehensive images to illustrate such things as the anatomy of typography and others, but I don't think I've found a source where the metrics are explained.
When I start a new typeface, I always type a few capital letters in a few different typefaces and take the average weight of these typefaces to be roughly the starting point of my own, unless I have something specific in mind which requires a lighter or darker weight than Regular (which could be called Book and Medium I suppose).
So, is there a standard when it comes to the weight and dimensions of typefaces? Judging from other typeface there doesn't really seem to be.
And also, does it really not matter if a font is 1050 ems tall? Doesn't it scale, resulting in the weight becoming a tad lighter than Regular?